KONFLIK AGAMA: TINJAUAN SOSIOLOGI SASTRA ATAS NOVEL MENGAKU RASUL KARYA OLLIE

Penulis

Firmansyah, S.pd

Pembimbing: Prof. Dr. Siti Chamamah Soeratno


ABSTRACT: The phenomenon of religious conflict in the community can be used as a reflection of the social media community in the novel that represented Mengaku Rasul (MR). MR itself novel is a product of socio-cultural community. Theoretically, this research aims to develop a sociological theory of literature related to religious conflicts. Practically, this study expected to provide understanding in depth and give meaning to the literature thoroughly studied. Formal object of this research is the religious conflict. While the material object as well as samples of this study is novel Mengaku Rasul (MR). This study used three methods of two perspectives and sociological research Swingewood literature. First, a novel MR is a social document in the which the situation is a reflection of society when the novel was created, namely the issue of recognition of a cult and a new apostle or prophet at that time. Second, the novel MR is a reflection of the social situation and background of the writer. Third, a novel MR is a manifestation of historical events and socio-cultural circumstances of the time with the burgeoning flow of events 'heretic' and the recognition of new apostles. While the application of the first two research methods, novel MR is the result of reflection or a reflection of social events that occur in society. Second, the creation of novel MR can not be separated from the social conditions of society. Both methods are used as the basis for the relationship the between the novel MR with the community. The results of this study there are three parts. First, the causes of the dominant religious conflict in the novel MR Among others. (1) the conflict defamation of Islam teachings, (2) the recognition of a new apostle to gain the trust of his followers, (3) sexual harassment in the name of religion, (4) the conflict of sin and ticket packages go to heaven, (5) conflicts of polygamy in the name of religion, (6) the conflict the between the supernatural powers with the miracle of God. (7) the existence of self-pride; (8) the abuse of jihad; (9) conflict wealth and power in the name of religion; and (10) the abuse of guardian of marriage in Islam. All religious conflict represents incident and reflection of a society that was emerging at that time. Overall, religious conflict in the novel MR population is represented through the work of Ollie. Second, the dialectic the between the religious conflict in the novel MR with religious conflicts in society look at the dialectical process between the novel MR with (a) the presence of Lia Eden Community and flow of 'heretical' recitation Teuku Ayub job in the district Bireun, Banda Aceh, (2) the presence of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (MGA), the founder of the Jemaah Ahmadiyah Indonesia (JAI), (3) the presence of Mbah Suranto and Ahmad Tantowi, (4) cases of polygamy by Aa Gym, Yahya Zaini, and Sheikh Puji, (5) the flow of 'heretical' Haur Koneng, leader Abdul Manan, (6) religious conflict in Ambon, and (7) the phenomenon of 'forced marriage' and 'guardian judge' in society. All religious conflict is Represented in the novel MR That was evident of the relationship stronger dialogue relations and the between them. Third, the resolution of religious conflict as follows. First, the required resolution of the conflict by either (1) apply the ability to interpret religious Teachings are good, (2) apply the ability to communicate religious teachings are wise and prudent, (3) apply the skills and exemplary attitude of religious leaders , (4) apply process of awareness of the figures figures that caused the conflict, (5) integrative solution bridging, (6) integrative solutions Expanding the Pie (enlarge the cake), and (7) logrolling integrative solutions (solutions fringe benefits). By implementing these seven religious conflict resolution, the principle of universality, the principle of pluralism, and the principle of peace will be created by itself in religious life in society.

INTISARI: Fenomena konflik agama di masyarakat dapat dipakai sebagai media pencerminan situasi sosial masyarakat sehingga terepresentasi dalam novel Mengaku Rasul (MR). Novel MR itu sendiri merupakan produk sosial budaya masyarakat. Secara teoretis, penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangkan teori sosiologi sastra yang terkait dengan konflik agama. Secara praktis, penelitian ini diharapkan mampu memberikan pengertian secara mendalam dan memberikan makna secara menyeluruh terhadap karya sastra yang diteliti. Objek formal penelitian ini adalah konflik agama. Sedangkan objek material sekaligus sebagai sampel penelitian ini adalah novel Mengaku Rasul (MR). Penelitian ini menggunakan tiga perspektif dan dua metode penelitian sosiologi sastra Swingewood. Pertama, novel MR merupakan dokumen sosial yang di dalamnya merupakan refleksi situasi masyarakat ketika novel tersebut diciptakan, yakni adanya isu alirat sesat dan pengakuan rasul atau nabi baru pada waktu itu. Kedua, novel MR merupakan cerminan situasi sosial dan latar belakang penulisnya. Ketiga, novel MR merupakan manifestasi peristiwa sejarah dan keadaan sosial budaya pada masa itu dengan maraknya peristiwa aliran ‘sesat’ dan pengakuan rasul baru. Sedangkan penerapan dua metode penelitian tersebut pertama, novel MR merupakan hasil refleksi atau cerminan dari peristiwa sosial yang terjadi pada masyarakatnya. Kedua, proses penciptaan novel MR tidak terlepas dari kondisi sosial masyarakat. Hasil penelitian ini ada tiga bagian. Pertama, sebab-sebab terjadinya konflik agama yang dominan pada novel MR antara lain. Pertama, konflik penistaan ajaran agama Islam. Kedua, pengakuan rasul baru untuk memperoleh kepercayaan pengikutnya. Ketiga, pelecehan seksual atas nama agama. Keempat, konflik paket penghapus dosa dan tiket masuk surga. Kelima, konflik poligami atas nama agama. Keenam, konflik antara kesaktian dengan Mukjizat Tuhan. Ketujuh, adanya kesombongan diri. Kedelapan, penyalahgunaan jihad. Kesembilan, konflik harta dan kekuasaan atas nama agama. Kesepuluh, adanya penyalahgunaan wali nikah dalam Islam. Semua konflik agama tersebut merepresentasikan peristiwa dan cerminan kehidupan masyarakat yang sedang marak pada masa itu. Cerminan konflik agama dalam masyarakat tersebut terepresentasi dalam novel MR karya Ollie. Kedua, dialektika antara konflik agama pada novel MR dengan konflik agama di masyarakat tampak pada proses dialektik antara novel MR dengan (1) hadirnya Komunitas Lia Eden dan aliran ‘sesat’ pengajian Teuku Ayub di Kab. Bireun, Banda Aceh, (2) hadirnya Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (MGA), pendiri Jemaah Ahmadiyah Indonesia (JAI), (3) hadirnya Mbah Suranto dan Ahmad Tantowi, (4) kasus poligami oleh Aa Gym, Yahya Zaini, dan Syekh Puji, (5) aliran ‘sesat’ Haur Koneng, pimpinan Abdul Manan, (6) konflik agama di Ambon , dan (7) fenomena ‘kawin paksa’ dan ‘wali hakim’ di masyarakat. Seluruh konflik agama tersebut terepresentasi dalam novel MR sehingga tampak jelas adanya hubungan dialogis dan relasi kuat di antara keduanya. Ketiga, resolusi konflik agama di Indonesia sebagai berikut. Pertama, diperlukan resolusi konflik dengan cara (1) menerapkan kemampuan menginterpretasikan ajaran agama secara baik, (2) menerapkan kemampuan mengkomunikasikan ajaran agama secara arif dan bijaksana, (3) menerapkan kemampuan dan sikap keteladanan pemimpin agama, (4) menerapkaan proses penyadaran terhadap tokoh-tokoh yang menyebabkan terjadinya konflik, (5) solusi integratif model bridging (solusi menjembatani), (6) solusi integratif Expanding the Pie (memperbesar kue), dan (7) solusi integratif logrolling (solusi balas jasa). Dengan menerapkan tujuh resolusi konflik agama tersebut maka prinsip universalitas, prinsip pluralisme, dan prinsip kedamaian akan tercipta dengan sendirinya dalam kehidupan beragama dalam masyarakat.

Kata kunci konflik agama, dialektika, dan resolusi konflik.
Program Studi UGM
No Inventaris 1429-H-2011
Deskripsi xix., 299 p., bibl., ills., 29 cm
Bahasa Indonesia
Jenis Tesis
Penerbit [Yogyakarta] : Universitas Gadjah Mada, 2011
Lokasi Perpustakaan Pusat UGM
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