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Tindak tutur Al-Khabariy dan tindak tutur Al-Insya at Talabiy dalam Novel Ahlu Al-Hamidiyyah karya Najib Al-Kilaniy :: Analisis pragmatik

Penulis

Rofiq, Faiq Ainur

Pembimbing: Dr. Amir Maruf, M.Hum


ABSTRACT : This research is focused on describing the al-khabary speech acts (tindak tutur deklaratif) and al-insya<’ at}-t}alabiy speech acts (including the imperative speech acts, interrogative speech acts, interdiction speech acts, conditional speech acts and vocation speech acts) in Naji>b al-Ki>la>ni’s novel Ahlu al-H{ami>diyyah including the forms, the functions, and the types. The methods used to analyze the data are intra linguistic and extra linguistic based on pragmatics theory. The result of the research shows that al-khabary speech acts in novel based on the forms can be jumlatun fi‘liyyatun and jumlatun ismiyyatun. The form of jumlatun fi‘liyyatun just include fi‘l ma>di> and fi‘l mudari‘. The forms of al-insya<’ at}-t}alabiy speech acts that divided into five parts the forms are as follows: the forms of imperative speech acts (tindak tutur al-’amriy) can be fi‘l amr, fi‘l muda>ri‘ with la>m amr, ism fi‘l amr, and mas}dar. The forms of interrogative speech acts (tindak tutur al-istifha>miy) based on it’s instruments can be interrogative with hal, hamzah, man, ma>, mata>, aina, kam, kaifa, ayyu and interrogative with question mark (?). The form of interdiction speech acts (tindak tutur an-nahyi) can be fi‘l mud}a>ri‘ with la> an-na>hiyah. The forms of conditional speech acts (tindak tutur at-tamanniy) based on it’s instruments can be conditional speech acts with la‘alla, law dan laita. The forms of vocation speech acts (tindak tutur an-nida>’iy) based on it’s instruments can be vocation speech acts with ayyu, ya> and a>i. Based on its functions, the al-khabary (tindak tutur deklaratif) speech acts divided into twenty six types, they are: advice (al-irsya>du), show a weakness (id}ha>ru ad-do‘fi), show a sadness (iz}ha>ru at-tah}assuri), show a happiness (iz}ha>ru al-farah}i), insulting (at-tah}qi>ru), reminding (at-taz\ki>ru), warning (at-tanbi>hu), > boasting (at-tafa>khuru), praising (al-madh}u), glorifying (at-ta‘z}imu), expectation (at-tamanni>), interdiction (an-nahyu), promising (al-wa‘du), threat (at-tah}di>du), denial (al-inka>ru), expulsion (an-nafyu), despairing (at-tai’i>s), motivation (tahri>ku al-himmati), reprimanding (at-taubi>khu), commanding (al-amru), comforting (ali’tina>su), congratulating (at-tahni’atu), praying (ad-du‘a>’u), inviting (ad-da‘watu), interrogating (al-istifha>mu) and confusing (at-tah{yi>ru). al-Insya<’ at}-t}alabiy speech acts that divided into five parts the functions are as follows: the functions of imperative speech acts (tindak tutur al-’amriy) divided into seventeen types, they are: praying (ad-du‘a>’u), compassion (al-istirh}a>mu), advice (al-irsya>du), threat (attahdi>du), welcoming (at-tarh}i>bu), respect (al-ikra>mu), insulting (at-tah}qi>ru), permission (al-iz\nu), comforting (al-i’tina>su), educating (at-ta’di>bu), wondering (at-ta’ajjubu), stating (al-khabaru), warning (at-tanbi>hu), resigning (at-tasli>mu), reminding (at-taz\ki>ru), pardoning (t}alabu al-‘afwi) and inviting (ad-da‘watu). The functions of interrogative speech acts (tindak tutur al-istifha>miy) divided into eighteen types, they are: commanding (al-’amru), expulsion (an-nafyu), denial (alinka>ru), motivation (tahri>ku al-himmati), determining (at-taqri>ru), insulting (attah}qi>ru), wondering (at-ta‘ajjubu), threat (al-wa‘i>du), warning (at-tanbi>hu), show a sadness (iz}ha>ru at-tah}assuri), boasting (at-tafa>khuru), confusing (at-tah}yi>ru), reprimanding (at-taubi>khu), reminding (at-taz\ki>ru), despairing (at-tai’i>su), stating (al-khabaru), expectation (at-tamanni>) and inviting (ad-da‘watu). The functions of

INTISARI : Fokus penelitian ini adalah mendapatkan deskripsi mengenai tindak tutur al-khabariy (tindak tutur deklaratif) dan tindak tutur al-insya<’ at}-t}alabiy (yang mencakup tindak tutur imperatif (amr), interogatif (istifha>m), larangan (nahy), pengandaian (tamanni>), dan panggilan (nida>’)) yang digunakan dalam praktik komunikasi yang terdapat dalam novel ahlu al-h{ami>diyyah karya Naji>b al-Ki>la>niy, yakni menyangkut bentuk-bentuk formalnya, makna-makna pragmatiknya dan penggunaannya. Metode analisis yang dipakai dalam penelitian ini adalah metode intra linguistik dan ekstra linguistik dengan menggunakan teori tindak tutur dalam pragmatik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa berdasarkan bentuknya, tindak tutur al-khabariy (tindak tutur deklaratif) dapat dibagi menjadi dua bentuk, yaitu jumlatun fi‘liyyatun dan jumlatun ismiyyatun. Jumlatun fi‘liyyatun pada tindak tutur deklaratif berupa fi‘l ma>di> dan fi‘l mudari‘. Tindak tutur al-insya<’ at}-t}alabiy yang terbagi menjadi lima macam, bentuk-bentuknya antara lain. Tindak tutur al’amriy (tindak tutur imperatif) dalam novel, mempunyai empat bentuk, yaitu: fi‘l amr, fi‘l mud}a>ri‘ yang didahului dengan la>m amr, ism fi‘l amr, dan mas}dar yang menggantikan fi‘l amr. Tindak tutur al-istifha>miy (tindak tutur interogatif) berdasarkan pirantinya mempunyai sepuluh bentuk yakni dengan menggunakan hal, hamzah, man, ma>, mata>, aina, kam, kaifa, ayyu , dan pola intonasi kalimat tanya yang digambarkan dengan tanda tanya (?) di akhir tuturan. Bentuk tindak tutur an-nahyi (tindak tutur larangan) dalam novel berupa fi‘l mud}a>ri‘ yang didahului dengan partikel -la> yang berfungsi untuk melarang (la> an-na>hiyah). Bentuk tindak tutur at-tamanniy (tindak tutur pengandaian) berdasarkan pirantinya mempunyai tiga bentuk, yakni dengan menggunakan la‘alla, law dan laita. Bentuk tindak tutur an-nida>’iy (tindak tutur panggilan) pada praktik komunikasi yang terdapat dalam novel ahlu al-h{ami dan a>i. Makna pragmatik tindak tutur al-khabariy (tindak tutur deklaratif) dalam novel ahlu al-h{amib al-Ki>la>niy terbagi menjadi dua puluh enam macam yaitu: saran (al-irsya>du), memperlihatkan kelemahan (id}ha>ru ad-do‘fi), memperlihatkan kesedihan (iz}ha>ru at-tah}assuri), memperlihatkan kegembiraan (iz}ha>ru al-farah}i), hinaan (at-tah}qi>ru), mengingatkan (at-taz\ki>ru), peringatan (attanbi>hu), kesombongan (at-tafa>khuru), pujian (al-madh}u), mengagungkan (atta‘z}i>mu), harapan/pengandaian (at-tamanni>), larangan (an-nahyu), janji (alwa‘du), ancaman (at-tah}di>du), ingkar (al-inka>ru), meniadakan (an-nafyu), putus asa (at-tai’i>s), motivasi (tahri>ku al-himmati), teguran (at-taubi>khu), perintah (alamru), hiburan (al-i’tina>su), ucapan selamat (at-tahni’atu), doa (ad-du‘a>’u), ajakan (ad-da‘watu), pertanyaan (al-istifha>mu) dan kegalauan (at-tah{yi>ru). Tindak tutur al-insya<’ at}-t}alabiy yang terbagi menjadi lima macam, makna pragmatiknya seperti dalam perincian berikut. Tindak tutur al-’amriy (tindak tutur imperatif) dalam novel ahlu al-h{ami’u), meminta belas kasihan (al-istirh}a>mu), saran (al-irsya>du), ancaman (attahdi>du), persilaan (at-tarh}i>bu), pemulyaan (al-ikra>mu), hinaan (at-tah}qi>ru), izin (al-iz\nu), hiburan (al-i’tina>su), mendidik (at-ta’di>bu), heran (at-ta’ajjubu), berita (al-khabaru), peringatan (at-tanbi>hu), kepasrahan (at-tasli>mu), mengingatkan (at-

Kata kunci Tindak tutur,Makna pragmatik,Tindak tutur tidak langsung dan tindak tututr literal
Program Studi S2 Agama dan Lintas Budaya UGM
No Inventaris c.1 (2902-H-2009)
Deskripsi xx, 225 p., bibl., ills., 29 cm
Bahasa Indonesia
Jenis Tesis
Penerbit [Yogyakarta] : Universitas Gadjah Mada, 2009
Lokasi Perpustakaan Pusat UGM
File Tulisan Lengkap dapat Dibaca di Ruang Tesis/Disertasi
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